A key concept for personal development as both Ken Wilber and Robert Kegan – and thus also Cook-Greuter – see it is the contradiction between differentiation and integration… To start from oneself or to start from others.
According to Robert Kegan, the world is constructed through relationships. People are fundamentally their relationships, and the crucial pendulum swing of development is the movement between Integration – being like others and Differentiation – being oneself. These two positions belong together and cannot be separated, and personal development occurs in the dynamic between the two apparent opposites. They are the force that moves us from one stage, from one position to the next. On our journey through life, we both develop the self, i.e. we create our personal identity and self-perception through looking at the world from the inside out, AND we enter into and develop relationships and thereby learn to look at the world from the outside in. A balanced self-awareness requires both views.
This is the basic developmental pendulum swing. And as we shall see, this pendulum swing will be a central part of the more concrete model behind the development of Value Analysis.
Thus, a growing understanding of ourselves in relation to people and people in relation to ourselves is the central point of conflict and the crucial dynamo for our development path. Development and maturation as a human being always involves a greater awareness and understanding of the relationship between myself and others. Maturity is therefore a question of self-awareness and self-knowledge from within, but also a question of deepening existing relationships, feeling greater responsibility towards the other, knowing how I affect others, increasingly understanding other people’s ways of reacting, being able to see through increasingly complex systems, being able to think in paradoxes and polarities, being able to handle dilemmas, etc.